The Sánchez de Iñigo Puzzle
New Genealogical Considerations
By Josá Antonio Esquibel
The genealogy of the Sánchez de Iñigo family of seventeenth-century New Mexico has been a puzzle for researchers interested in uncovering the paternal origins of this distinct New Mexican family. Fray Angélico Chávez identified the progenitor of the Sánchez de Iñigo family as Juana López, the mother of Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo and Pedro Sánchez de Iñigo, and presumably the mother of doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo. A pre-nuptial investigation record for Pedro referred to his mother, Juana López, and did not offer any clues as to the identity of his father. Similar records for Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo and doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo do not identify the names any parents for these individuals. The origin of the Sánchez de Iñigo surname used by these individuals has stumped New Mexico genealogical researchers for the past fifty years, particularly because there have not been any records extracted for a seventeenth-century settler of A New Mexico with this surname. As such, It has been thought that the Sánchez de Iñigo children were perhaps the children of one or more men living in New Mexico during the latter half of the 1600s. Now, recent research into seventeenth-century Inquisition records pertaining to New Mexico has lead to uncovering records for a man who was accused of "living scandalously" with a woman named Juana López de Aragón in 1663, and the surname this man's mother was Sánchez de Iñigo.
We know from Chávez's research that Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo was born circa 1663, having declared his age as twenty-two in 1685 and his birthplace as New Mexico. Pedro Sánchez de Iñigo, born circa 1673-1674, identified himself as a native of New Mexico and a son of Juana López when he sought to marry doña Leonor Baca in December 1691 at El Real de San Lorenzo in the El Paso,del Rio del Norte area.3 Pedro signed his petition of marriage, indicating he was a literate individual. In a later pre- nuptial investigation record, dated 1698, Pedro Sánchez de Iñigo was clearly identified as a son of Juana López, not Ana López as parenthetically indicated by Fray Ángelico Chávez. In 1692, Juana López and Jacinto Sánchez were padrinos for Francisco de Apodaca and Maria Lopez de Luna when this couple married at Corpus Christi de Ysleta in the region of EI Paso del Rio del Norte. Curiously, Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo claimed he did not know the names of his parents when he sought to marry his second wife, Maria Rodarte de Castro Xabalera, in 1696. Jacinto also had knowledge of letters since he wrote and signed his own marriage petition in 1696. One of the witnesses for this pre- nuptial investigation was Juan Trujillo, a native of the Rio Abajo region of New Mexico, who declared he had known Jacinto "desde de que nacio" ("since he was born")
On May 4, 1681, doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo married Juan Garcia de Noriega, son of Maese de Campo Alonso Garcia and doña Teresa Varela. Although Garcia de Noriega's parents were identified in the pre-nuptial investigation record, the names of doña Francisca's parents were not recorded. Two witnesses on behalf of doña Francisca, Tiburcio de Ortega and Juan de Madrid, both declared they had known her ""desde nina de pecho" (""since she was a suckling child") and both certified that she was a ""Christiana e hija de Christianos biejos" (""Christian and daughter of old Christians"), indicating they probably knew the identity of her parents but for whatever reason they kept the information from the record.
In early 1692 each of the three Sánchez de Iñigo individuals were residing at EI Paso del Rio del Norte with their spouses and each indicated their willingness to re-enter and settle New Mexico under the command of Governor don Diego de Vargas. Doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo and her husband Captain Juan Garcia de Noriega, the alguacil mayor (high sheriff) of the Santa Fe cabildo (town council) were listed as the second household of EI Paso with four children (Juan Antonio, age eleven; Francisco, age seven; José, five; and Maria, two) and ten others in their service. Their son, Juan Antonio, was baptized at the church of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in EI Paso on March 15, 1682, and was identified as being ""español," the son of Juan Garcia and doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo. Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo and Pedro Sánchez de Iñigo were listed as households number thirty-three and thirty-four, respectively. In the household of Jacinto and his first wife, Isabel Telles Jirón, were their two children, Juana, age four, and José, age one and a half, and one female dependent whose name was not given. Pedro Sánchez de Iñigo and his wife Leonor Baca were listed immediately following the family of Jacinto without any children or other dependents, and Pedro declared he was ready to enter New Mexico. Juana López is not accounted for in the list of families preparing to return to New Mexico, but she appears to be the Juana López listed as a widow immediately before the children of Jacinto Sánchez in the 1697 cattle distribution census. In her household was her niece named Lucinda.
Curiously, Jacinto and his brother Pedro, as well as the family of doña Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo, were not accounted for in the 1697 cattle distribution census, although immediately following Juana López were the names of the ""orphans" of Jacinto Sánchez named as Juana, Gertrudis, and Pedro. This absence from the census list may be accounted for by the fact that Jacinto and Pedro were on the official roster of the one hundred soldiers of Santa Fe in 1697. In addition, doña Leonor Baca, Pedro's wife, was killed in the Pueblo Indian uprising of June 1696, and thus there was only mention of an orphaned daughter of hers in the 1697 census.
The name of the father of the Sánchez de Iñigo siblings has remained a mystery since the publication of Origins of New Mexico Families fifty years ago. Fray Angélico Chávez speculated that the Sánchez de Iñigo children were fathered by a member of the Dominguez de Mendoza family and that Juana López "could well have been" a daughter of Diego López de Castillo. This statement has led some researchers to identify Juana López as Juana López del Castillo. As discussed below, records indicated that Juana López may instead have been a member of the López de Aragón family.
Also recent research into Inquisition records of New Mexico has uncovered information that Juana López de Aragón had an affair with a man whose maternal family surname was Sánchez de Iñigo.
In the latter part of 1659 and through the early 1660s, Pueblo Indians as well as vecinos and other residents of New Mexico were encouraged by Governor don Bernardo López de Mendizábal to come forward with complaints about the lifestyle of the Franciscan friars. Inquiries were set up under López de Mendizábal's authority. Allegations that included the fathering of children with Pueblo Indians and sexual affairs with Spanish women were brought to light. Although the specific records of these inquiries have not yet been uncovered, or perhaps were part of the royal archive in Santa Fe destroyed in 1680, scattered references to the alleged misbehavior of some Franciscan friars appear in recorded testimonies of Inquisition documents of the early 1660s. Inquisition officials in Mexico City examined the allegations and agreed that there were abuses by some friars. It was reported that some women did not go to confession "because they were solicited in the confessional," and those friars that fathered children were known to have provided dowries for their daughters.
One friar, Fray Francisco Muñoz, was denounced by Diego Pérez Romero, who in August 1663 stated that Muñoz "vivido siempre muy escandolossamente" ("always lived very scandalously") with a daughter of Captain Diego de Trujillo referred to as 'La Donosa' and her first cousin doña Juana López de Aragón. With this information, as well as that related to other friars accused of affairs with women, I began searching for sources concerning the history and genealogy of the friars in New Mexico. Jake Ivey, an art historian and archeologist in Santa Fe, graciously loaned me a microfilm copy of Libro de contradas y profesiones de novicios de este convento de Padre San Francisco de Mexico 1562-1680, a source from the Bancroft Library. Scanning page by page through the copy of original documents, one particular record caught my eye with the surname of Sánchez de Iñigo. This turned out to be the record for Fray Francisco Muñoz who at age eighteen took the habit of San Francisco on December 20, 1646, in Mexico City. He was as a native of Puebla de los Ángeles, New Spain, and his mother was Madalena Sánchez de Iñigo.
Sánchez de Iñigo is a distinct and uncommon Spanish surname. 'Sánchez' is a patronym and 'Iñigo' is an ancient Basque given name popularized by the royal family of Navarra in the Middle Ages. This combination of a patronym with a given name connected by the article 'de' is the equivalent of something like 'Ramirez de Diego' or 'González de Pedro,' or in English it is akin to 'Anderson of Henry' or 'Johnson of Peter.' Alternatively, it should also be considered that there may be a small town in Spain named Iñigo and thus Sánchez de Iñigo would follow the general pattern of a patronym followed by a toponym (place name). In either case, Sánchez de Iñigo is a distinctive and rare extended surname.
The next intriguing piece of information was that Fray Francisco Munoz's father was named Jacinto Munoz. As a given name, Jacinto was not as common as names such as Francisco, Juan, Diego, Pedro, or Cristobal, which can be found more frequently in records of early seventeenth-century New Spain and New Mexico. The full record of the acceptance of the Franciscan habit of Fray Francisco Munoz reads:
En veinte dias del mes de Diciemnre de mil y seis
fro franco cientos y quarenta y seis años ahora de martines
munos en tomo el habito para el choro el H fr. Fran muños
20 de Diciembre natural de la Ciudad de la Pueblla Hijo Legitimo
de 46 de Jacinto muños y de Doña Madalena Sanches
professo de Iñigo de hedad de dies y ocho añs Diole el habito
el pe fr Augustin Sanches Vicario del convento
en precenfia del comunidad
Fr. Joseph de Truxillo
In this record Fray Francisco Muñoz was identified as a native of Puebla, age eighteen (b.ca.1629), and a legitimate son of Jacinto Muñoz and doña Madalena Sánchez de Iñigo. As discussed further below, Fray Francisco Muñoz was a Franciscan priest who was in New Mexico as early as 1660 and survived the Pueblo Indian Revolt of August 1680.
The information presented above offers intriguing clues that allow researchers to seriously consider the parents of the Sánchez de Iñigo family of New Mexico as Fray Francisco Muñoz Sánchez de Iñigo and doña Juana López de Aragón. The surname of Sánchez de Iñigo appears in records of late seventeenth-century New Mexico. During that period, based on genealogical research of the past fifty years, the only known individuals with this surname living in New Mexico were Fray Francisco Muñoz Sánchez de Iñigo (b. ca. 1629), the two sons of Juana Lopez -Jacinto Sanchez de Inigo (b.ca 1663) and Pedro Sanchez de Inigo (b.ca 1673-1674)- and Francisca Sánchez de Iñigo (an apparent sister of Jacinto and Pedro). In addition, given names that appear in the early generations of the Sánchez de Iñigo family -such as Jacinto, Pedro, Francisca, Francisco, and Juana- are also found in the genealogy of Fray Francisco Muñoz and doña Juana López de Aragón, which is in accordance with the tradition of naming children after immediate relatives.
López de Aragón
Doña Juana López de Aragón was a daughter of Francisco López de Aragón and doña Ana Baca, and was referred to as a first cousin of a woman named only as 'La Donosa,' a daughter of Diego de Trujillo. Francisco López de Aragón owned an estancia called El Alamo, which upon his death before 1659 was then owned by his wife, doña Ana Baca. When Governor don Bernardo López de Mendizábal arrived in New Mexico in July 1659 he called for the vecinos (tax-paying citizens) of New Mexico to come to Santa Fe and present their papers and titles. Doña Ana Baca, as a widow, appeared in Santa Fe on July 19, 1659, to present her papers, which was recorded by the governor's secretary Miguel de Noriega. These papers, most likely including the service papers of her husband as well as title to their land, consisted of twenty pages. Doña Ana Baca was a literate woman who wrote a petition in October 1661 in response to the call for citizens to come forward with any complaints about Governor López de Mendizábal during his residencia (review of his tenure ). In this petition she mentioned she owned an estancia for farming four leagues from Santa Fe call El Alamo and without knowing how she had the small amount of land tilled and sown with assistance from her brother-in-law, whom she did not name, but mentioned he had gone to the "provincias de moquino." This information corresponds to Captain Diego de Trujillo, who was appointed as alcalde mayor of the jurisdiction of the provinces of Moqui in 1659 by Governor López de Mendizábal. This is further clarified by the identification of a daughter of Diego de Trujillo as a cousin of doña Juana López de Aragón, which supports the identification of Trujillo as the brother-in-law of doña Ana Baca. This relationship provides a critical piece of information because in 1696 Juan de Trujillo was a witness for the pre-nuptial investigation of Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo. Trujillo stated he had known Jacinto since his birth circa 1663. Juan de Trujillo was born circa 1650-1651, and thus would have been about twelve years old when Jacinto was born. Jacinto Sánchez de Iñigo and Juan Trujillo could very well have been relatives, thus accounting for Trujillo's familiarity with Jacinto since birth. If so, then perhaps Juana López, the mother of the Sánchez de Iñigo siblings, may indeed have been doña Juana López de Aragón.
Fray Angélico Chávez postulated that Juana López de Aragón was the same individual as Juana de Aragon, who was killed in Taos at the time of the Pueblo Indian uprising and who was the wife of Sebastián de Herrera Corrales. Additional research is needed to clarify whether doña Juana López de Aragón was the same person known as Juana López, who survived the uprising, or Juana de Aragón, who died in August 1680.
Muñoz and Sánchez de Iñigo
Fray Francisco Muñoz was a Franciscan priest assigned to New Mexico by 1660. In September of that year, Muñoz was mentioned as being the guardian friar of the Pueblo of Picuris in a statement made by Fray Nicolás de Chávez in Mexico City, who further mentioned: "And this Father Francisco Muñoz went to the convent of San Marcos where this deponent was alone... ..and on that same morning, Saturday, he [Muñoz] met this deponent two leagues from the convent of San Marcos at a farm which they call Los Cerrillos -the owner of which is Doña Bernardina, widow of one Diego Márquez whom they beheaded in New Mexico..." Providing testimony at the Pueblo de Isleta on May 25, 1661, Fray Francisco Muñoz, age thirty (b. ca. 1631), denounced Captain Juan Dominguez de Mendoza for making amorous advances towards his comadre doña Ana Moreno de Trujillo, wife of Cristóbal Baca. Two years later, in August 1663, Muñoz was referred to as the guardian of the Pueblo de San Ildefonso and was denounced in a statement of Captain Diego Romero as having "always lived scandalously" ("vivido siempre muy escandolossamente") with a woman known only as 'La Donosa,' daughter of Captain Diego de Trujillo, and with her cousin doña Juana López de Aragón. It is not certain if the Office of the Inquisition investigated this allegation against Muñoz. Two
years later, on October 15, 1665, at the Pueblo of Sandia, Fray Francisco Muñoz identified himself as a native of the "Ciudad de los Ángeles" (Puebla de los Ángeles, New Spain) and gave his age as thirty-six (b.ca. 1629). This information matches that which was provided in the record of his acceptance of the Franciscan habit in 1646.
Fray Francisco Muñoz continued to serve in New Mexico and was at the Pueblo of Zia in August 1680 when he and four soldiers "escaped by dint of hard riding" on horseback with hostile Indians on their trail. They encountered a small troop of soldiers under the command of lieutenant general Alonso Garcia who escorted them to safety. On August 14th, while encamped at the Pueblo of Isleta, Fray Francisco Muñoz was one of the friars that agreed with the opinion of Garcia to continue moving southward to seek shelter, aid, and safety. Muñoz and other friars were consulted again at San Cristobal (September 14th) and at La Salineta (October 2nd). By October 15, 1680, the refugees were at EI Paso del Rio del Norte where Muñoz and three other friars wrote a letter addressed to the virceroy of New Spain. This is the last account of Fray Francisco Muñoz in New Mexico that has been extracted from archival documents in regard to the research of this article. Basically, Muñoz was in New Mexico from at least 1660 through the fall of 1680, representing a lengthy career in New Mexico spanning at least twenty years.
The maternal grandparents of Fray Francisco Muñoz, Pedro de lñigo and Maria Sanchez were residents of the Ciudad de Puebla de los Ángeles, New Spain, in the latter part of the 1500s. Their combined surnames formed the distinctive Sánchez de lñigo family name. Their daughter doña Madalena Sánchez de lñigo (also known as Madalena Sánchez), a native of Puebla de los Ángeles, was first married on September 6, 1609, Puebla de los Ángeles, with Pedro López de Villegas, a native of Madrid, Spain, and a son of Domingo López and Ynés de Villegas. Their marriage was recorded in the books of the sagrario chapel of the cathedral in Puebla de los Ángeles:
p Lopes Ma Sarces en seis de setiem del 09 d despose a p Lopez
velose natural de Madrid hijo de domingo Lopez y de ynes
de villegas i a madalena sanches hija de po de inigo
de M sanches n desta ciudad testigos bar ...(illegible)
Di Ortiz Lo firme
p de go ...(illegible)
Four of their known children were baptized in the sagrario chapel of the cathedral in Puebla de los Ángeles:
.Magdalena Lópes Sánchez, bt. July 1, 1620.
.Jusepa [Josefa] López Sánchez, bt. April 3, 1623.
.Pedro López, Sánchez, bt. February 10, 1625.
.Leonor López Sánchez, bt. May 28, 1627.
It is likely they had children born before 1620, but these children may not have been baptized at the sagrario chapel of the Catedral de Puebla. Additional research is needed to identify any other López-Sánchez children.
While pregnant with her daughter Leonor, doña Madalena Sánchez de Iñigo, widowed of Pedro López de Villegas, married Jacinto Muñoz on February 9, 1627, as recorded in the sacramental book of the sagrario chapel of the Catedral de Puebla. As seen in the transcription of this marriage record, Jacinto Muñoz was a native of Sevilla, Spain, and a son of Francisco Muñoz and Leonor Ortiz:
Jasinto muiios En veinte de febrero de 1627 as deposo el Doctor Jasinto desco
y Madalena Sanchez bar cura desta cathedral A Jasinto muiios vecino desta ciu
velaronse dad y natural de sevilla hijo legitimo de Francisco
muiios difunto y de leonor ortis su muley y A madalena
sanchez asi mesmo vesina desta ciudad biuda de pedro 10
pez de villegas siendo testigos deste matrimonio gaspar
gonllalez del moral clerigo su diacono el bachiller AF
de otamendi Felipe de torres Jusepe rodrigues y 10 firme
D. Jasinto de escobar
There is very likely a record of passage for Jacinto Muñoz, or for his parents, that may be part of the records of the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla, Spain. Also, additional research into the Muñoz family genealogy will need to be conducted using records for Sevilla. The Muñoz surname is a Galician-Asturian patronym of northern Spain literally translated as 'son of Munio,' and dates back to at least to the ninth century.
Jacinto Muñoz and doña Madalena Sánchez de Iñigo were the parents of at least three children that were baptized in the sagrario chapel of the Catedral de Puebla, including Francisco Muñoz who entered the religious order of San Francisco:
.Francisco (I) Muñoz Sánchez, bt. October 16, 1628, who may have died within the
first year of life.
.Francisco (II) Muñoz Sánchez, bt. October 22, 1629, who took the habit of San
Francisco and declared he was 18 years old in 1646 (b. ca. 1629).
.Teresa Muñoz Sánchez, bt. February 9,1631.
The genealogy chart above provides a visual illustration of the genealogy of the Sánchez de Iñigo family that emerges from the various fragments of information that have been uncovered from archival documents. If Fray Francisco Muñoz was indeed the father of the Sánchez de Iñigo children, as is strongly suggested in the evidence presented above, he may have remained in New Mexico out of desire to stay near his children.
The research presented in this article is intended to assist further genealogical research into the Sánchez de Iñigo family. The loss of so many valuable historical records presents challenges for reconstructing many seventeenth-century New Mexico family genealogies. In the case of the Sánchez de Iñigo family, a few scatter fragments of critical information have been uncovered that serve as important pieces of the family puzzle. As such, the pattern of given names within the Sánchez de Iñigo family coupled with the
distinctive surname of this family and the accusation of 'scandalously living' against Fray ~ Francisco Muñoz offer an argument for considering Muñoz as the father of the Sánchez
de Iñigo siblings. Surnames link individuals to previous generations of paternal or maternal family members. This was particularly so in Spanish society of the seventeenth century, which highly valued family honor. One form of expression of this honor was in the use of paternal and maternal given names and surnames. Whether there were ever records of friars of New Mexico acknowledging their children will remain a mystery unless such records come to light. In the meantime, it appears that Fray Francisco Muñoz left a valuable clue for posterity by identifying his mother with the distinctive and rare surname of Sánchez de Iñigo and by what appears to be the christening of his sons with the given names of Jacinto (his father's name) and Pedro (his maternal grandfather's name) and by passing along his maternal family surname to these individuals.
The information presented in this article could be a bizarre set of coincidences, or perhaps it was coincidence that brought to light these surviving fragments of information from various sources to begin to put together the lost pieces of the puzzle regarding the Sánchez de Iñigo ancestry. The findings are shared for the sake of offering assistance to restore the memory of a lost family lineage. In addition, this article begins to seriously explore the topic of Franciscan friars having children and leaving descendants in New Mexico. Interested readers are encouraged to write their comments about the conclusions presented in this article and address them to the editor of this genealogical journal. There may be additional information collected by other researchers that will support, refine, or even refute aspects of the findings presented here.
1. Fray Angélico Chávez, Origins of New Mexico Families in the Spanish Colonial Period (ONMF), Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe, 1992,279-280,390.
2. Chávez, ONMF, 280; Spanish Archive of New Mexico II, no. 35.
3. Chávez, ONMF, 280, 390; Archives of the Archdiocese of New Mexico (AASF), Diligencias Matrimonios (DM) 1692, Dec. 10 (no. 30).
4. Chávez, ONMF, 279, 280.
5. Chávez, ONMF' 390-391; AASF, DM 1692, no. 9.
6. ONMF, 280, AASF, DM 1696, no, 12; AASF, DM 1701 no. 4.
7. AASF, DM 1681, no. 9.
8. John L. Kessell, Rick Hendricks, and Meredith Dodge, eds., To the Royal Crown Restored: The Journals of Don Diego de Vargas, 1692-1694 (RCR) University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1995,37.
9. Padrinos for this child were Gregorio Cobos and dona Teresa Barela. John B. Colligan, "Spanish Surnames Found in the First Book of Baptisms of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe del Paso del Rio del Norte, 1662-1688" (based on extractions from the original book of baptisms compiled in the thesis of Walter V. McLaughlin, Jr., Texas Western College (now the University of Texas at EI Paso/UTEP), August 1962. See http://pages.prodigy.net! bluemountainl/elpaso.html.
10. Kessell, Hendricks, and Dodge, RCR, 45
11. Kessell, Hendricks, and Dodge, RCR, 45
12. John L. Kessell, Rick Hendricks, and Meredith Dodge, eds., Blood on the Boulders: The Journals of Don Diego de Vargas, 1694-1697 (BOB), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1998, 1151.
13. Kessell, Hendricks, and Dodge, BOB, 1151.
14. John L. Kessell, Rick Hendricks, Meredith Dodge, and
Larry D. Miller, eds., That Disturbances Cease: The Journals of Don Diego de
Vargas, 1697-1700, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque,
15. Kessell, Hendricks, and Dodge, BOB, 729,1156
16. Chavez, ONMF, 280n.15.
17. Archivo General de la Nacion (AGN), Inquisition (Inq.), t. 594, f. 190v.
18. AGN, Inq., t. 594, ff. 22, 131.
19. Testimony of Diego Romero, August 21, 1663, Mexico City, AGN, Inq., t. 586, pt. 2, f. 100v.
20. Libro de contradas y profesiones de novios de este convento de Padre San Francisco de Mexico 1562-1680, Bancroft Library, Mexican Manuscripts 216-18.
21. Libro de contradas y profesiones de novios de este convento de Padre San Francisco de Mexico 1562-1680, Bancroft Library, Mexican Manuscripts 216-18.
22. AGN, Tierras, t. 3268, f. 66.
23. AGN, Galeria, Concurso de Pefialosa, t. 3, leg. 1, no. 1, f. 37v.
24. AGN, Tierras, t. 3268, f. 66
25. AGN, Tierras, t. 3268, ff. 63v-64.
26. Chavez, ONMF, 108, 296.
27. Chavez, ONMF, 47.
28. Testimony, Sept 18, 1660, Mexico City, in Charles Wilson Hackett, Historical Documents relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1937, Vol. ill, 153, citing AGN, Inq., t. 587, ff. 32, 37-39v, and 40.
29. AGN, Inq., t. 593, ff. 87-91.
30. AGN, Inq., t. 586, pt. 2, f. 101; AGN, Inq., t. 586, pt. 2, f. 100v.
31. AGN, Inq., t. 582, exp 2, f. 430v.
32. Charles Wilson Hackett, ed., and Charmion Clair Shelby, trans., Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermin's Attempted Reconquest, 1680-1682, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1942, Vol. I, 57.
33. Hackett and Shelby, Revolt, I, 67-70.
34. Hackett and Shelby, Revolt, 1,116,165.
35. Hackett and Shelby, Revolt, I, 202-204.
36. Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, Mexico, Sagrario Metropolitano, Matrimonios 1585-1615, LDS , microfilm #00227701.
37. These baptisms were extracted from the International Genealogical Index from Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, Mexico, Sagrario Metropolitano, Bautismos, 1609-1623, LDS microfilm #0227521 and Baustismos, 1624-1636, LDS microfilm #0227522.
38. Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, Mexico, Sagrario Metropolitano, Matrimonios, 1615-1639, LDS, microfilm #00227701.
39. These baptisms were extracted from the International Genealogical Index from Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, Mexico, Sagrario Metropolitano, Bautismos, 1624-1636, LDS microfilm #0227522.
A man finds room in a few square inches of his face for the traits of all his ancestors;
for the expression of all his history, and his wants.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
This material was published in the El Farolito Winter 2003 Vol. 6, No. 4 of the Olibama Lopez Tushar Hispanic Legacy Research Center.